The Jackson 5 were the first act in recording history to have their first four major label singles ("I Want You Back", "ABC", "The Love You Save", and "I'll Be There") reach the top of the Billboard Hot 100. Several later singles, among them "Mama's Pearl", "Never Can Say Goodbye" and "Dancing Machine", were Top 5 pop hits and number-one hits on the R&B singles chart. Most of the early hits were written and produced by a specialized songwriting team known as "The Corporation"; later Jackson 5 hits were crafted chiefly by Hal Davis, while early Jacksons hits were compiled by the team of Gamble and Huff before The Jacksons began writing and producing themselves in the late 1970s.
Significantly, they were one of the first black teen idols to appeal equally to white audiences thanks partially to the successful promotional relations skills of Motown Records CEO Berry Gordy. With their departure from Motown to CBS in 1976, The Jacksons were forced to change their name and Jermaine was replaced with younger brother Randy as Jermaine chose to stay at Motown. After two years under the Philadelphia International Records label, they signed with Epic Records and asserted control of their songwriting, production, and image, and their success continued into the 1980s with hits such as "Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)", "Lovely One", and "State of Shock". Their 1989 album 2300 Jackson Street was recorded without Michael and Marlon. Michael and Marlon did appear, however, on the title track. The disappointing sales of the album led to the group being dropped by their record label at the end of the year. The group has never formally broken up, but has been dormant since then, although all six brothers performed together at two Michael Jackson tribute concerts in September 2001.
Born and raised in Gary, Indiana, the Jackson brothers were guided early in their careers by their father Joseph Jackson, a steel mill crane operator and former musician, and their mother Katherine Jackson, who watched over the boys during the early years. Tito recalled playing around with his father's guitar while he was away working on Gary's steel mills. One night, Joe discovered Tito had been playing his guitar after Tito broke a string. Initially upset with his sons playing behind his back, he saw their potential and in 1963, Jackie, Tito and Jermaine formed The Jackson Brothers, including hometown friends Reynaud Jones and Milford Hite on guitar and drums respectively. By the end of the following year, the group's younger brothers Marlon and Michael joined the instrumental band playing tambourine and congas.
Showing extraordinary talent at a very young age, young Michael began demonstrating his dance moves and singing ability at the age of four though it took until 1966 for Joe Jackson to recognize his talent. Before his eighth birthday, Michael was allowed to perform his song-and-dance routine at a talent contest held at Jackie's Roosevelt High School in Gary, helping his brothers win the competition. It was at that point that Tito's junior high school orchestra teacher Shirley Cartman began mentoring the group. She suggested replacing Jones and Hite with talented musicians Johnny Jackson (no relation) on drums and Ronnie Rancifer on keyboards. Tito moved up to lead guitar while Jermaine played bass guitar after several years as a rhythm guitarist.
Evelyn Lahaie, a local talent agent, suggested to Joe to rename the group the Jackson 5 when they performed in her Tiny Tots Jamboree in Gary. After the contest win, the group began playing professional gigs in Indiana, Chicago and across the U.S. Many of these performances were in a string of black clubs and venues collectively known as the "chitlin' circuit". The group also found themselves performing at strip joints to earn money. Cartman got the Jackson 5 a record deal with Gordon Keith's local Steeltown label, and the group began making their first recordings in October 1967. Their first single, "Big Boy", was released in January 1968 and became a regional hit. This was followed by a second single, "We Don't Have to Be Over 21 (To Fall in Love)". A third, "Let Me Carry Your School Books", features Michael Jackson's singing with backing provided by The Ripples and Waves.
The Jackson 5 had a number of admirers in their
early days, including Sam & Dave, who helped the group secure a spot in the famous Amateur Night competition
at the Apollo Theater in Harlem. The group won the August 13, 1968,
competition during the Amateur Night showdown at the Apollo, impressing
Motown Records artist Gladys Knight. Knight recommended the group
to Motown chief Berry Gordy, but Gordy, who already had teenager
Stevie Wonder on his roster, was hesitant to take on another child
act because of the child labor laws and other problems involved.
The Jackson 5's sound was influenced by many of the biggest stars
of the 1960s, including the self-contained funk bands Sly & the Family Stone and The Isley Brothers, Motown group The Temptations, soul
legend Marvin Gaye, rock 'n' roll kid group The Teenagers and soul
shouters like Wilson Pickett, Jackie Wilson, Stevie Wonder, Joe
Tex and James Brown. At the time of their early success, R&B stars, especially coming from Motown Records, were among the most popular musicians;
Motown had launched the careers of dozens of the decade's biggest
stars, most notably The Supremes, The Miracles, Stevie Wonder,
Marvin Gaye, the Four Tops and the Temptations.
By 1968, the Jackson 5 were a headlining act for the All Star Floor Show at Chicago's The Guys' and Gals' Cocktail Lounge and Restaurant. From August 12–27, 1968, the Jackson 5 opened for Motown acts Gladys Knight & the Pips and Bobby Taylor & the Vancouvers at Chicago's Regal Theater. The brothers caught Knight's attention, whereby she tried to get Motown brass to come to Chicago to see the boys. Taylor was also very impressed with the boys, and he decided to make the commitment to bring them to Detroit and Motown. Joseph and The Jackson 5 stayed on the floor of Bobby Taylor's Detroit apartment the night of July 22, while Taylor and Motown executive Suzanne de Passe arranged for the Jackson 5 to audition for the label.
On July 23, the Jackson 5 had their Motown audition, for which they performed James Brown’s then current hit "I Got the Feelin'". Berry Gordy was not in attendance, but the audition was videotaped and sent to him in Los Angeles. Gordy's initial reluctance to sign the group disappeared when he finally saw the boys perform. Gordy decided to sign the Jackson 5 to Motown, and hosted a party at his Detroit mansion on November 25, 1968, to introduce them to the Motown staff and stars. Motown began negotiations to buy out the Jackson 5's Steeltown contract, completing the deal in March 1969. By the summer, Bobby Taylor began producing the group's first recordings at Motown's Hitsville U.S.A. recording studio in Detroit. The early Taylor-produced Jackson 5 records were all covers of both contemporary hits and Motown-standards, including Sly & the Family Stone's "Stand!" and their famous rendition of The Miracles' "Who's Lovin' You", written by Smokey Robinson. Gordy moved the Jackson 5 and Joseph to California, and he and Suzanne de Passe began the process of grooming them as the label's next big act, while the rest of the family remained in Gary. While looking for a house in California, Joseph, Jermaine, Tito, and Jackie lived with Berry Gordy, Marlon and Michael lived with Diana Ross in her California home.
Motown's marketing team prepared press kits and
other promotional material to begin The Jackson 5's entrance into
the mainstream music industry. Motown publicity significantly altered
the group's history, publicizing the ages of most of its band mates
as younger than they were — Michael's age changed from eleven to
nine to make him appear cuter — and identifying unrelated band
musicians Johnny Jackson and Ronnie Rancifer as cousins of the
Jacksons. In a major marketing coup, Gordy and Motown decided to
attach the group to an established star to increase public curiosity.
Thus, it was decided that Motown star Diana Ross would "discover" the group as was explained in all early press kits. According to their official
Motown biography, referenced in several early interviews and liner
notes, Diana Ross (and, in some versions of the story, Berry Gordy
alongside her) was introduced to the Jackson 5 by Gary, Indiana's
mayor, Richard G. Hatcher, at a benefit concert that the Jackson
5 were described as having played for the mayor in 1969. Impressed,
Ross (and Gordy) had the act signed.
The Jackson 5 practiced and rehearsed continuously during the late summer and early fall of 1969. Diana Ross formally introduced The Jackson 5 to the public on August 11, 1969, at a Beverly Hills, California club called "The Daisy." Towards the end of August, The Jackson 5 made their first television appearance, singing The Isley Brothers' "It's Your Thing" at the Miss Black America Pageant in Madison Square Garden, New York City.
The Jackson 5's first single, "I
Want You Back", was written and produced by four Motown songwriters and producers — Berry Gordy,
Alphonzo Mizell, Deke Richards, and Freddie Perren — who were collectively
billed as "The Corporation". "I Want You Back" was released as a single for The Jackson 5, as Motown decided to officially
bill the group, on October 7. The group performed "I Want You Back", Sly & the Family Stone's "Sing a Simple Song", The Delfonics' "Can You Remember", and James Brown's "There Was a Time" as part of their appearance on The Hollywood Palace as special guests of Diana
Ross & the Supremes. "I Want You Back" was the only single from The Jackson 5's first album, Diana Ross Presents The
Jackson 5, which was released in December 1969. The song reached
number one in January, 1970. When it did, Michael became the
first person born during the "Hot 100" era, established by Billboard Magazine, to reach the number one position on
the Billboard Hot 100 pop singles chart.
Most of the early Jackson 5 singles were written and produced by The Corporation, who crafted for The Jackson 5 a sound that mixed the traditional "Motown Sound" with teenage-honed lyrics that they termed "bubblegum soul". The Jackson 5 became an instant sensation, with "I Want You Back" and its 1970 followups "ABC", "The Love You Save," and "I'll Be There" all going to number one on both the Billboard Hot 100 and the Billboard Best Selling Soul Singles chart. "The Love You Save" charted atop the Billboard Hot 100 for two weeks and "I'll Be There" remained at the top position of the chart for four weeks, which is tied with "I Want You Back" for the most successful single for the band in the United States. The three singles were commercially successful internationally, mainly peaking within the top ten on music charts. Other early Top 5 hits included "Mama's Pearl" and "Never Can Say Goodbye." Now successful, Joseph was finally able to arrange to move Katherine and the rest of the family out to California in 1970. First moving into a two-story residence at 1616 Queens Road in Los Angeles, the Jackson family moved to a gated mansion they called "Hayvenhurst", which was purchased by Joseph in March 1971.
the nation, and within a year of their debut The Jackson 5 were
among the biggest names in popular music. The group essentially
replaced The Supremes as Motown's main marketing focus, and, capitalizing
upon the youth-oriented appeal of the Jackson brothers, Motown
licensed dozens of Jackson 5-related juvenile products, including
the now famous J5 Heart logo which appears on Johnny Jacksons drum
kit and many of The Jackson 5's album covers, stickers, sewable
patches, posters, and coloring books. A new teen magazine aimed
at African-American youth, Right On!, began publication in 1971,
and focused heavily on The Jackson 5; at least one Jackson adorned
the cover of every issue published between January 1972 and April
1974. Animation producers Rankin/Bass produced The Jackson 5ive,
a Saturday morning cartoon that debuted on September 11, 1971 and
ran for two seasons on ABC. The Jackson 5 starred in two of their
own television specials, Goin' Back to Indiana (aired September
16, 1971) and The Jackson 5 Show (aired November 5, 1972).
In 1971, Motown began a spin-off solo career for
Michael, whose first single, "Got to Be There" became a Top 5 hit. Michael also sang the title track for the 1972 motion picture
Ben. His other successful solo singles included "Rockin' Robin" and "I Wanna Be Where You Are" (both 1972). Jermaine started a solo career of his own in 1972, and had a Top
Ten hit with his Shep and the Limelites cover "Daddy's Home". Jackie also recorded a solo album in 1973, but his releases failed to chart.
Despite fan rumors that all three Jacksons might leave the group
as they released solo work, the solo careers of Michael, Jermaine,
and Jackie co-existed alongside that of the group as a whole, allowing
Motown to expand the success and sales of Jackson 5-related releases.
After the year 1972, The Jackson 5's releases were not as successful, but they still did very well. Later top-20 hits, mostly written and produced by Hal Davis included "Lookin' Through the Windows" (1972) and the disco-styled "Dancing Machine" (1974), which popularized the "Robot" dance routine. Jackson 5 albums declined somewhat in critical acclaim and financial success during the latter part of their Motown tenure, although LPs such as Lookin' Through the Windows (1972) and G.I.T.: Get It Together (1973) frequently included successful album tracks, including their version of "Hum Along and Dance", a popular number in their live act.
The Jackson 5 provided background vocals on Stevie Wonder's "You Haven't Done Nothing" from his 1974 album Fulfillingness' First Finale.
Critics, The Jackson 5, and Joseph Jackson agreed[according
to whom?]that the main reason for the group's declining success
was Motown's refusal to update their image. Although they played
their own instruments on stage and had begun writing and producing
songs in their own home recording studio, The Jackson 5 later said
that Motown wouldn't allow them to record their own compositions
or play instruments in their studio recordings. The group's studio
recordings were first handled by Motown's famed in-house studio
band The Funk Brothers during their brief recording tenure at Hitsville
and later instrumentation was played by many of the members of
The Wrecking Crew, which formed Motown's Hitsville West studio
band. Feeling that The Jackson 5 could be more of a success without
Motown, which was by this time declining in success and popularity,
Joseph began shopping for a new record deal for his sons.
In 1975, Joseph negotiated a new recording contract with CBS Records, who offered a royalty rate of 20% per record, compared to Motown's standard 2.8%; and would allow the Jackson brothers to write and produce their own records and play their own instruments. After unsuccessfully attempting to talk the group into staying on the label, Motown sued for breach of contract. Although Motown eventually let the group go, The Jackson 5 were forced to change their name to The Jacksons, because Motown retained the "Jackson 5" trademark during the settlement of the lawsuit. The Jacksons also replaced Jermaine with their brother, 14-year-old Randy, since Jermaine chose to stay with Motown after he got married to Berry Gordy's daughter, Hazel. Randy had been an unofficial member of The Jackson 5 since 1972, playing congas onstage as part of their live act.
After losing The Jacksons, Motown would not have another success of their caliber for the duration of Berry Gordy's ownership of the label. Gordy often said of The Jackson 5 that they were, coming after the label's most famous acts, "the last big stars to come rolling off the [Motown] assembly line." In summer 1976, CBS television signed the Jackson family (including Michael, Marlon, Tito, Jackie, Randy, Rebbie, LaToya, and Janet) to appear in their own variety show, The Jacksons, to compete with ABC's Donny & Marie. The Jacksons debuted on June 16, 1976, and ran on CBS until its cancellation the following March. The show was the first variety show hosted by an African American family.
First as part of CBS's Philadelphia International
Records division, and later moving over to Epic Records, The Jacksons
continued releasing popular singles such as "Enjoy Yourself" (1976), produced by Philadelphia International's Kenneth Gamble & Leon Huff. After two LPs produced by Gamble and Huff, The Jacksons wanted artistic
control, and produced their next LP, 1978's Destiny, on their own.
The album included The Jacksons' biggest post-Motown single, "Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)", which charted at number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 and at number three
on the Billboard R&B Singles chart. "Shake Your Body", written by Michael and Randy, sold over two million copies, attaining double-platinum
status. Destiny also went platinum, and peaked at number 11 on
the Billboard 200 album chart and number three on the R&B album charts. In 1979, The Jacksons received a star on the Hollywood Walk of
Fame. In 1978, Michael starred alongside Diana Ross in the Motown/Universal
Pictures motion picture The Wiz, an adaptation of the Broadway
musical based upon L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
Quincy Jones was the producer of the film's songs, and he and Michael
began work on Michael’s first Epic solo album, Off the Wall, the
next year. Off the Wall, released in 1979, sold 20 million copies
worldwide and featured four Top 10 hit singles and two number-one
singles, causing some speculation about whether Michael would leave
The Jacksons, though Michael told several reporters at the time
that such speculation was unfounded.
In 1980 the group released the Triumph album, which featured the hits "This Place Hotel" and "Can You Feel It", as well as the dance club hit "Walk Right Now". The following year's The Jacksons Live! used recordings from the group's Triumph Tour, which in 1988 was described by Rolling Stone magazine as one of the best 25 tours from 1967 to 1987. The group's success was outperformed, however, by Michael's 1982 LP Thriller. Thriller went on to become the most successful album ever in the United States, and to date stands as the world's best-selling album of all time. The Motown 25 television special, broadcast on NBC on May 16, 1983, featured a reunion performance between Jermaine and the other brothers. Outside of one 1979 appearance on the TV show Midnight Special this was the original Jackson 5's first performance in nearly seven years. The Motown 25 Jackson 5 reunion was overshadowed, however, by Michael's incredible performance of "Billie Jean" on the same program, which introduced his trademark black sequin jacket, single decorated glove and "moonwalk" dance.
In 1984, all six Jackson brothers reunited to make the album Victory. The album was only modestly successful. Three singles were released from the album; "State of Shock", which features Mick Jagger, "Torture" and "Body". "Torture" peaked at #17 on the Billboard Hot 100 and #26 on the United Kingdom charts. However, the subsequent Victory Tour of North America in the summer and fall of 1984 proved to be one of the biggest concert tours of the 1980s. Aside from a few scattered TV and concert appearances in the 1970s, the Victory Tour period was the only time all six brothers performed together as full members of the band.
Michael left the band to continue his solo career after the tour. Marlon left around the same time to pursue a business career outside music. The other brothers took on solo projects. Most of them would appear with Michael on the U.S.A. For Africa single "We Are the World" in 1985.
The last Jacksons album was 2300 Jackson Street in 1989. Every Jackson sibling except for LaToya appeared on the title track, a #9 R&B hit single. The rest of the album featured Jermaine, Jackie, Tito, and Randy only.
In September 2001, The Jacksons reunited to perform
at a concert special at Madison Square Garden to celebrate 30 years
of Michael Jackson's career as a solo artist. The concerts were
filmed and the footage was shown in the special, 30th Anniversary
celebration, which aired on CBS in November 2001 as a two-hour
television special. The on-stage performance was for the first
time since The Jacksons Victory Tour seventeen years prior.
A CD compilation of hits from the CBS/Epic years, The Essential
Jacksons, was released in 2004, as was a separate compilation assembled
by Universal/Hip-O, The Jacksons Story.
Beginning in early 2009, the four oldest brothers
(Jackie, Tito, Jermaine and Marlon) filmed a reality television
show, documenting their attempts to get the family band back together.
In December 2009, the show debuted on the A&E Network under the title The Jacksons: A Family Dynasty. Michael Jackson's attempted
comeback and his sudden death happened in the middle of the project.
Those events dominated the reality TV show, even though he was
never seen on-camera (except in old music videos.) 
In June 2009, following the death of brother Michael,
the remaining performing Jacksons reunited in a studio to record
background vocals for a previously unreleased song, "This Is It" (the theme for the movie of the same name), which had originally been a demo.
The radio-only single was released in October of that same year.
The song did not chart on the Billboard Hot 100, but charted at
number nineteen on Billboards Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks. "This Is It" returned The Jacksons to the chart for the first time since 1970, when, billed
as the Jackson 5, the group marked its sole previous entry, "I'll Be There", which went on to peak on the chart at number twenty-four. The surviving
members of the Jacksons were in talks of planning a reunion concert
tour (which was to be served as a tribute to Michael) for 2010,
and were in talks in working on their first new studio album in
over 20 years. However, neither plan has been put into
action. In September 2010, Jermaine Jackson held his own "tribute" concert to Michael in Las Vegas. While his brothers and sister Janet attended,
neither of them joined their brother onstage. As of November 2010,
the future of the Jacksons remains uncertain as Jackie Jackson
released a solo single to iTunes.
The singing efforts of Michael and his brothers led to the group's induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997 and the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 1999. Two of the band's recordings ("ABC" and "I Want You Back") are among The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's "500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll", with the latter track also included in the Grammy Hall of Fame. On September 8th, 2008, The Jacksons were honored as BMI Icons at the annual BMI Urban Awards. 
In 1992, Suzanne de Passe and Jermaine Jackson worked with Motown to produce The Jacksons: An American Dream, a five-hour television miniseries broadcast based on the history of The Jackson family in a two-part special on American Broadcast Company. The script began with Katherine and Joseph Jackson's first meeting in the mid-1940s and ended with the Victory Tour in 1984.
The Jackson 5 was the inspiration for several generations of boy bands, including New Edition, Menudo, New Kids on the Block, N*SYNC, the Jonas Brothers and many more. The rise of the Jackson 5 in the 1960s and 1970s coincided with the rise of a very similar band of brothers, the Osmond Brothers. Some considered the Osmonds, who were white, an imitation of the Jacksons. However, the Osmonds actually started a few years before the Jacksons, and were considered an inspiration to them. Joseph Jackson was impressed by the Osmond Brothers' early TV appearances and instructed his own sons to study them closely. Eventually, the members of the two families became friends. Jay Osmond recalled in a June 2009 blog posting that "Michael had a unique sense of humor about him, and told us he was so tired of watching The Osmonds on The Andy Williams Show. He explained this was something their father had them do, and Michael joked he became really tired of it!"
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